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首页 > 考研公共课 > 考研英语 > 2020考研英语:语法精炼秘籍之代词(下)
发布时间:2019年01月16日 来源:郑州启航考研

        ()either, neither, any, each, none, every, some

  1. eitherneither是一对反义词,表示两者中任何一个都()”,作名词或形容词。


  either (neither) of the+复数名词+动词单数

  either (neither)+单数名词+动词单数

  如:Either/Neither of these stories (either/neither story) he told us is as attractive and instructive as that one.

  例句: Neither kind of sleep is at all wellunderstood, but REM (rapid eye movements) sleep is assumed to serve some restorative function of the brain.

  分析: 该句是并列句。

  译文: 人们对这两种睡眠都没有完全了解,但认为快速眼动睡眠有使大脑恢复的功能。

  2. either指两者中的任何一个,仅限两者,而each用于两者以上;eitherboth可互换使用,但both强调整体。

  例句: The relationship between Latin American music and black music in the United States is evident in the unaccented beats that are common to either/both.

  分析: 该句是复合句,定语从句that are common to either/both修饰beats

  译文: 拉丁美洲音乐同美国黑人音乐的关系明显地表现在这两种音乐各自存在着无重音节拍这一共同点上。

  例句: We also expect each place to be appropriate to its use.

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 我们也希望每个地方都恰如其分。

  3. anynone是一对反义词,表示三者或三者以上中的任何一个都()”,其后谓语动词 的单复数参看例句。

  例句: Although Professor Green's lectures usually run over the fifty minute period, none of his students ever object(s) as they find his lectures both informative and interesting.

  分析: 该句是复合句。

  译文: 虽然格林教授的课通常超过规定的50分钟,但他的学生从无一人表示反对,因为他们发现格林的课既富有知识性又有趣。

  例句: If any man here does not agree with me, he should put forward his own plan of improving the living conditions of these people.

  分析: 该句是复合句。

  译文: 如果在座的有人不赞成我的观点,那么他就应该提出他自己的改善这些人生活条件的方案。

  4. anysome的主要区别在于any用于否定句、条件句和疑问句;some用于肯定句,表示期待对方的肯定答复或以问句形式向对方提出要求或邀请。

  例句: He has failed me so many times that I no longer place any reliance on what he promises. (1997年第23)

  分析: 该句是复合句。

  译文: 他多次辜负了我的期望,以至于我不再相信他作出的任何承诺。

  例句: The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. (选自2008Use of English)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主干部分是The idea is one of those hypothesesthat some groups of people may be more intelligent than othersidea的同位语从句,that dare not speak its namehypotheses的定语从句。

  译文: 认为某些群体的智商要高于其他群体是一个无人敢说出来的假想。

  5. every只能用作形容词,everyone指人,而every one既可以指物也可以指人。

  例句: Without telephone it would be impossible to carry on the functions of practically every business operation in the whole country. (1998年第32)

  分析: 该句是简单句,本句隐含了一个与现在情况相反的虚拟语气,Without telephone相 当于if there were no telephone

  译文: 如果没有电话,全国几乎所有的商业运作都不可能正常进行。

  例句: There is an incorrect assumption among scientists and medical people that everyone agrees on what constitutes a benefit to an individual.

  分析: 该句是复合句,that everyone agrees on...assumption的同位语从句,what constitutes a benefit to an individual作介词on的宾语。

  译文: 科学家和医务人员普遍持有一种不正确的假设,即:人们在什么构成了个人利益问题上意见一致。

  ()onethe otheranother

  1. 两者中一个用one表示,另一个用the other表示,不定数目中的另一个用another表示。

  例句: However, when two monkeys were placed in separate but adjoining chambers, so that each could observe what the other was getting in return for its rock, their behavior became markedly different. (选自2005Text 1)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主句部分为their behavior became markedly differentwhen引 导的时间状语从句中又插入了so that引导的目的状语从句,从句中what the other...observe的宾语。

  译文: 但是当两只猴子被放在隔开但相邻的两个房间中,而且每只猴子还能看到对方用岩石交换了什么物品之后,他们的行为就发生了巨大变化。

  例句: We had a party last month, and it was a lot of fun, so let's have another one this month.

  分析: 该句是并列句。

  译文: 上个月我们举行了一场晚会,很有意思。因此,我们这个月再举行一场类似的晚会吧。

  2. 表示三者并对三者加以说明。


  one...another...and the other

  one...a second...and the third

  例句: I have three sisters, one is a nurse, another (a second) is a teacher, and the other (and the third) is a doctor.

  注: 表示四者并对四者都加以说明的表达方式是:one...another...a third...and the fourth (the other)...

  3. One作代词时,前用形容词或thethisthatwhichanysomeeachevery等来修饰,另有one of the+复数名词+单数动词。

  例句: That means a higher proportion of what is in the sea is being caught, so the real difference between present and past is likely to be worse than the one recorded by changes in catch sizes. (选自2006Text 3)

  分析: 该句是复合句,means后的宾语从句省略了连接代词thatwhat is in the sea作介词 of的宾语,so引导的另一个分句中的the one代替前面的名词difference,分词短语recorded by...作后置定语修饰the one

  译文: 这意味着更高比例的海洋物种正在被捕捞,因此现在和过去的真正差异可能比根据渔获量的变化所记录的更糟糕。

  例句: One of the responsibilities of the Coast Guard is to make sure that all ships dutifully follow traffic rules in busy harbors. (2001年第13)

  分析: 该句是复合句,从句that all ships...harborsmake sure的宾语。

  译文: 海岸警卫队的责任之一就是确保所有船只在繁忙的港口严格遵守航运规则。

  注意: thatone都可用来代表句子前面部分中的名词以避免重复: one指代可数名词, 为不确定指代,其复数形式为ones;that指代可数和不可数名词,为确定指代,其复数形式为those

  例句: No bread eaten by man is so sweet as that earned by his own labor.

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中that代替前面的bread,分词短语earned by his own labor作定语修饰that

  译文: 什么面包也不如自己劳动挣得的面包香。

  例句: Julia tried to find a good book on physics, but the bookstore she went to yesterday did not have one.

  分析: 该句是并列句,其中第二个分句是一个复合句,she went to yesterday是修饰the bookstore的定语从句。

  译文: 朱丽亚想找一本物理学方面的好书,但昨天她去的那家书店没有。

  4. another后接单数名词,表示的意思是另一个,又一个(one more);另外的,别的(some other);不同的(a different)”

  例句: Her mother will be back in another moment, and we have to wait for her.

  分析: 本句是以and连接的并列句。

  译文: 她妈妈再过一会儿就回来,我们还是等等她吧。

  例句: We will visit the History Museum another day.

  译文: 我们改天参观历史博物馆。

  例句: He is planning another tour abroad, yet his passport will expire at the end of this month. (1998年第34)

  分析: 该句是由yet连接的并列句。

  译文: 他正计划再到国外去旅游,但是他的护照这个月底就到期了。

  5. other通常接复数名词,在any otherevery other, no othersome otherthe otherone other后,名词也可用单数形式。

  例句: As far as I am concerned, his politics are rather conservative compared with other politicians'. (1997年第19)

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中As far as I am concerned为插入语,other politicians相当于other politicians politics,分词短语compared with other politicians在句中作状语表示时间或条件,相当于when/if his politics are compared with other politicians'

  译文: 依我看,与其他政治家的政治观点相比,他的观点更加保守。

  例句: No other book has had a greater influence on my life.

  译文: 任何书对我一生的影响都没有这本书大。

  例句: Wilson found there was only one other guest besides himself.

  译文: 威尔逊发现除了他自己外只有一个客人。

  注意: other与数目连用时其位置如下:

  基数词+ other+复数名词;

  the other+基数词+复数名词或the+基数词+other+复数名词。

  ()few,a few; little,a little

  fewa few修饰可数名词;littlea little修饰不可数名词;a fewa little具有肯定含义;fewlittle具有否定含义;the fewthe little表示肯定含义。

  例句: A few premiers are suspicious of any federal provincial deal making.(选自2005Part B)

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 一些省督们对由联邦政府联合各省进行谈判的做法心存怀疑。

  例句: The roles expected of old people in such a setting give too few psychological satisfactions for normal happiness. (2000年第7)

  分析: 该句是简单句,其中分词短语expected of old people在句中作定语修饰the roles

  译文: 在此情况下,对老年人角色的期望使得他们几乎无法得到心理上的满足,也就无法享受正常的幸福生活。

  例句: Living in the central Australian desert has its problems, of which obtaining water is not the least.

  分析: 该句是复合句,of which obtaining water is...是一个非限制性定语从句修饰 problemsthe leastthe little的最高级表示肯定意义。

  译文: 居住在澳大利亚沙漠中心有其自身的问题,其中,获取水是很严峻的问题。

  例句: They may teach very well, and more than earn their salaries, but most of them make little or no independent reflections on human problems which involve moral judgment. (2006年第50)

  分析: 该句是并列复合句,定语从句which involve moral judgment修饰problemsbut前后是两个并列句。

  译文: 他们可以教得很好,而且不仅仅是为了挣薪水,但他们大多数人却很少或没有对需要进行道德判断的关于人的问题讲行独立思考。



  例句:It's hard to imagine that many people are dumb enough to want children just because Reese and Angelina make it look so glamorous: most adults understand that a baby is not a haircut. (选自2011Text 4)

  分析:该句是复合句。在主句中,it是形式主语,真正的主语是to imagine that many people are dumb enough to want children;在原因状语从句中,it代表前面提到的to want children;冒号后的内容是对前面内容的解释。


  例句: Most newspapers, while devoting the major part of their space to recent events, usually manage to find room on the inside pages for articles on some interesting topics. (2000年第17)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中主句为Most newspapers usually manage to find room on the inside pages...topics。从句while后的完整形式应为while they are devoting the major part of their space to recent events

  译文: 大多数报纸将主要版面用来报道近期发生的事件,但通常也会在内页留出空间刊登一些趣闻。

  例句: Most often the reason for this is that the mother is insensitive to the signals of the infant, whose brain is programmed to learn language rapidly.

  分析: 该句是复合句,that the mother is insensitive to the signals of the infant在句中充当表语从句,定语从句whose brain is...rapidly修饰the infant

  译文: 其原因往往是母亲对大脑已做好快速学习语言准备的婴儿所发出的信号不敏感。

  1. 单独使用时,most前无冠词。

  例句: Some of the people stayed behind, but most went.

  分析: most=most people,动词用复数。

  2. most后带有限制性定语从句时,前加the

  例句: The most this hall can seat is 1,000.

  分析: 这是一个复合句,this hall can seat这个定语从句修饰the mostseat是动词,意为……提供座位

  译文: 这个大厅最多能容纳一千人。

  3. most of the+复数名词表示大多数……”;most of+形容词性物主代词+单数名词表示大部分……”

  例句: Mr.Pollard has visited most of the countries in Europe.

  译文: 波勒德先生已经访问了欧洲大多数国家。

  例句: Most of her book deals with problems in political economy.

  译文: 她的书大部分都是论述政治经济方面的问题的。

  例句: Moreover, most of the changes that companies make are intended to keep them profitable, and this need not always mean increasing productivity: switching to new markets or improving quality can matter just as much. (选自1998Text 2)

  分析: 该句是并列复合句,and前一分句中that companies make是一定语从句修饰the changes,后一分句中this指代前面句子的所有内容,冒号后的内容作解释。

  译文: 此外,公司改革的目的大部分是为了盈利,这种需求并不一定总是能够提高生产率: 转入新的市场或改善产品质量也能获得同样的效果。

  4. most作副词时构成形容词或副词的最高级;在通俗英语中most=very,修饰形容词或副词,mostmostly的区别在于后者作大部分(=for the most part)

  例句: The Eskimo is perhaps one of the most trusting and considerate of all Indians but seems to be indifferent to the welfare of his animals. (2001年第14)

  分析: 该句是简单句,isseems to是两个并列谓语。

  译文: 爱斯基摩人可能是所有印第安人中最信任别人也最体贴他人的人,然而他们对自己的动物的福利却好像漠不关心。

  例句: What Mr.Jelly said is mostly (=for the most part) correct.

  译文: 杰勒先生说的话大部分是正确的。

  5. most+名词,表示泛指;most of the+名词,表示特指。

  例句: Most Chinese like fast food.(泛指)

  Most of the people in this district are fond of CCTV5.(特指)



  连接代词包括whowhom, whosewhatwhichthat。其中除what外,其他连接代词也可作关系代词,其区别在于连接代词引导的是主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句等名词性从句,而关系代词引导的是定语从句。


  例句: That the sun and not the earth is the center of our planetary system was a difficult concept to grasp in the Middle Ages.

  分析: 该句是复合句,that the sun and not the earth is the center of our planetary system在句中充当主语。

  译文: 太阳是我们行星系的中心(而不是地球)这一概念在中世纪是很难让人明白的。

  例句: It may be said that the measure of the worth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improving experience; but this effect is not a part of its original motive. (2009年第46)

  分析: 该句是由转折连词but连接的并列句,其中第一个分句中it作形式主语,真正的主语是that the measure of the worth...of any social institutionworth的后置定语,in enlarging and improving experienceits effect的后置定语。

  译文: 或许可以说,要衡量任何一种社会制度的价值就要看它在丰富和提升人们经验方面的影响,但是这种影响并不是其最初动机的一部分。


  例句: He adds humbly that perhaps he was “superior to the common run of men in noticing things which easily escape attention, and in observing them carefully”. (2008年第49)

  分析: 该句是复合句,that引导的宾语从句结构是he was superior to..., 其中包含了由which引导的定语从句,in noticing thingsin observing them carefully是并列结构。

  译文: 他又自谦地说,或许自己在注意到容易被忽略的事物,并对其加以仔细观察方面优于常人

  例句: I apologize if I had offended you, but I assure you it was unintentional. (1998年第3)

  分析: 该句是并列复合句,其中短语assure sb. that...意为向某人保证某事

  译文: 如果我冒犯了你,我向你道歉,但我保证那不是故意的。


  例句:One of the reasons why the appointment came as such a surprise, however, is that Gilbert is comparatively little known. (选自2011Text 1)

  分析:该句是复合句。其中,why the appointment came as such a surprise是一个定语从句,修饰reasonshowever作插入语,介词短语as such a surprise作状语,修饰came;主句的主干部分是One of the reasons is that Gilbert is comparatively little known

  译文: 然而,该任命显得如此突然的原因之一就是吉尔伯特比较不为人知。

  例句: The notion is that people have failed to detect the massive changes which have happened in the ocean because they have been looking back only a relatively short time into the past. (选自2006Text3)

  分析: 该句是复合句,that people have failed to...changes是一个表语从句,which have happened in the oceanchanges的定语,because后引导一个原因状语从句。

  译文: 这个概念是说人们没有注意到发生在海洋里的巨大变化,因为人们只是回顾了过去很短一段时间。


  例句:Allen's contribution was to take an assumption we all share — that because we are not robots we therefore control our thoughts — and reveal its erroneous nature. (2011年第46)

  分析:该句是复合句,主干部分是Allens contribution was to take an assumption and reveal its erroneous nature。其中we all share是一个定语从句,修饰assumption;that because we are not robots we therefore control our thoughts是一个同位语从句,与assumption为同位语关系。


  例句: But the idea that the journalist must understand the law more profoundly than an ordinary citizen rests on an understanding of the established conventions and special responsibilities of the new media. (2007年第48)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中主干结构为the idea...rests on an understanding...that the journalist must...an ordinary citizenthe idea的同位语从句。

  译文: 新闻记者应该比普通公民更加透彻地了解法律,但这种看法是基于他们对新闻媒体业已确立的规约和特殊责任的理解。

  ()whatever, who(m)ever, whichever


  例句: Now that you have developed a topic into a tentative thesis, you can assemble your notes and begin to flesh out whatever outline you have made. (选自2008Part B)

  分析: 该句是复合句,主干部分是you can assemble your notes and begin to flesh out...whatever outline you have madeflesh out(使充实、具体化)的宾语,从句中develop...into意思是发展成;变成。前半部分是now that引导的让步状语从句。

  译文: 既然你已经将一个主题拓展成了一个初步的论题,那么你就可以整合笔记内容,丰富自己拟定的提纲。

  例句: Donovan believed in using whatever tools came to hand in the “great game” of espionage — spying as a “profession”. (选自2003Text 1)

  分析: 该句是复合句,whatever tools came to...using的宾语,破折号后的内容是对espionage的解释说明。

  译文: 多诺万认为在职业间谍活动这一伟大事业中可以利用任何有用的工具。




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